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types of data measurement scales

Types of Data & Measurement Scales: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio

There are four measurement scales (or types of data): nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio.  These are simply ways to categorize different types of variables.  This topic is usually discussed in the context of academic teaching and less often in the “real world.”  If you are brushing up on this concept for a statistics test, thank a psychologist researcher named Stanley Stevens for coming up with these terms.  These four measurement scales (nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio) are best understood with example, as you’ll see below.

types of data measurement scales

Nominal
Let’s start with the easiest one to understand.  Nominal scales are used for labeling variables, without any quantitative value.  “Nominal” scales could simply be called “labels.”  Here are some examples, below.  Notice that all of these scales are mutually exclusive (no overlap) and none of them have any numerical significance.  A good way to remember all of this is that “nominal” sounds a lot like “name” and nominal scales are kind of like “names” or labels.

Examples of Nominal Scales

Examples of Nominal Scales

Note: a sub-type of nominal scale with only two categories (e.g. male/female) is called “dichotomous.”  If you are a student, you can use that to impress your teacher.

Continue reading about types of data and measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio…

Ordinal
With ordinal scales, it is the order of the values is what’s important and significant, but the differences between each one is not really known.  Take a look at the example below.  In each case, we know that a #4 is better than a #3 or #2, but we don’t know–and cannot quantify–how much better it is.  For example, is the difference between “OK” and “Unhappy” the same as the difference between “Very Happy” and “Happy?”  We can’t say.

Ordinal scales are typically measures of non-numeric concepts like satisfaction, happiness, discomfort, etc.

“Ordinal” is easy to remember because is sounds like “order” and that’s the key to remember with “ordinal scales”–it is the order that matters, but that’s all you really get from these.

Advanced note: The best way to determine central tendency on a set of ordinal data is to use the mode or median; the mean cannot be defined from an ordinal set.

Example of Ordinal Scales

Example of Ordinal Scales

 




Interval
Interval scales are numeric scales in which we know not only the order, but also the exact differences between the values.  The classic example of an interval scale is Celsius temperature because the difference between each value is the same.  For example, the difference between 60 and 50 degrees is a measurable 10 degrees, as is the difference between 80 and 70 degrees.  Time is another good example of an interval scale in which the increments are known, consistent, and measurable.

Interval scales are nice because the realm of statistical analysis on these data sets opens up.  For example, central tendency can be measured by mode, median, or mean; standard deviation can also be calculated.

Like the others, you can remember the key points of an “interval scale” pretty easily.  “Interval” itself means “space in between,” which is the important thing to remember–interval scales not only tell us about order, but also about the value between each item.

Here’s the problem with interval scales: they don’t have a “true zero.”  For example, there is no such thing as “no temperature.”  Without a true zero, it is impossible to compute ratios.  With interval data, we can add and subtract, but cannot multiply or divide.  Confused?  Ok, consider this: 10 degrees + 10 degrees = 20 degrees.  No problem there.  20 degrees is not twice as hot as 10 degrees, however, because there is no such thing as “no temperature” when it comes to the Celsius scale.  I hope that makes sense.  Bottom line, interval scales are great, but we cannot calculate ratios, which brings us to our last measurement scale…

example of interval scale

Example of Interval Scale

 

Ratio

Ratio scales are the ultimate nirvana when it comes to measurement scales because they tell us about the order, they tell us the exact value between units, AND they also have an absolute zero–which allows for a wide range of both descriptive and inferential statistics to be applied.  At the risk of repeating myself, everything above about interval data applies to ratio scales + ratio scales have a clear definition of zero.  Good examples of ratio variables include height and weight.

Ratio scales provide a wealth of possibilities when it comes to statistical analysis.  These variables can be meaningfully added, subtracted, multiplied, divided (ratios).  Central tendency can be measured by mode, median, or mean; measures of dispersion, such as standard deviation and coefficient of variation can also be calculated from ratio scales.

Example of Ratio Scales

This Device Provides Two Examples of Ratio Scales (height and weight)




Summary
In summary, nominal variables are used to “name,” or label a series of values.  Ordinal scales provide good information about the order of choices, such as in a customer satisfaction survey.  Interval scales give us the order of values + the ability to quantify the difference between each one.  Finally, Ratio scales give us the ultimate–order, interval values, plus the ability to calculate ratios since a “true zero” can be defined.
summary of data types and scale measures

summary of data types and scale measures

That’s it!  I hope this explanation is clear and that you know understand the four types of data measurement scales: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio!

 

 

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146 Comments

  • Reply LJ

    Time is in fact a ratio scale.
    20 seconds is twice as long as 10 seconds. You can multiply and divide time. The absolute 0 doesn\’t have to be attainable for the scale to be ratio. To borrow from your example: there is no such thing as \”no height\”, yet you\’ve classified height as ratio.

    March 13, 2013 at 10:36 am
    • Reply MMRM

      Thanks for the excellent comment, LJ. I have edited the article based on your comment. Time is a tricky one. This article from UC Davis explains how time, depending on how it is presented, can be categorized as any of these types of scales. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/scaling/levels.htm

      October 29, 2013 at 6:30 pm
    • Reply Anonymous

      I have a better understanding of the four levels of measurement. You explain the information better than my textbook.

      January 28, 2017 at 2:01 pm
  • Reply Ramesh Dhakal

    Thanks for this informative text. Now I became clearer between these four terms.

    April 26, 2013 at 3:14 am
  • Reply Rahul

    Thanks for that brilliantly written info. Really helped clear all of my confusion regarding scales, especially the difference between interval and ratio. Thanks again.

    June 16, 2013 at 11:10 pm
  • Reply Marisa B

    Thanks this helped me a lot!

    September 23, 2013 at 7:00 pm
  • Reply Wayne H

    Thank you so so much. Im doing a BA in Psychotherapy and one of our modules is Psychology so we only touch on it in one class so Im not au fait at all. You have explained to me in 10 minutes what I could not understand from our lecturer in a 2 hour long lecture. Feel more confident about the exam for this module next Monday!

    November 16, 2013 at 4:55 pm
  • Reply Upendo p

    Thanks so much,since now i understand those scales especial to differentiate them.

    December 6, 2013 at 11:29 pm
  • Reply T from the UK

    Very formative article, thanks to author for such a great job!

    February 24, 2014 at 6:10 pm
  • Reply Johny Law

    Brilliant article though, however I had one doubt regarding oil prices in exact USD figure over a monthly period. On which scale should these values lie. Appreciate your inputs.

    March 26, 2014 at 2:25 am
    • Reply Paul A

      That would be a ratio scale. $0 is a meaningful number, and the intervals between values are equal (i.e. the difference between $1 and $2 is the same as the difference between $99 and $100). A clear indication of this fact is that you can easily multiply and divide monetary values. E.g. 1 barrel of oil costs $100, then 2 barrels will cost 2X as much, or $200.

      December 4, 2015 at 7:48 pm
  • Reply BUKARI MOHAMMED

    Difficult things made really simple and easy to understand.

    March 29, 2014 at 10:35 pm
  • Reply m s

    very helpful

    April 7, 2014 at 7:24 pm
  • Reply fbo

    Thank you very much, you are a good teacher.

    April 17, 2014 at 5:41 am
  • Reply mmanda mberengo

    much appreciated author i got informed a lot in these scales

    May 4, 2014 at 5:48 am
  • Reply Kamal uddin

    Tnx a lot…..

    May 23, 2014 at 11:58 am
  • Reply THOMAS VIGBEDOR

    THANKS. I NOW HAVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE FOUR MEASURES

    June 22, 2014 at 6:17 am
  • Reply sehrish

    very easy to understand thank you 🙂

    July 6, 2014 at 4:07 am
  • Reply Abhishek Dixit

    Excellent & Simple explanation with examples for clarity.

    September 7, 2014 at 5:32 am
  • Reply Abhishek Dixit

    Excellent & Simple explanation.

    September 7, 2014 at 5:33 am
  • Reply Abhishek Dixit

    Excellent & Simple explanation

    September 7, 2014 at 5:34 am
  • Reply roilda daison

    very nice tnx

    September 29, 2014 at 11:52 pm
  • Reply Muhammad Ali

    I am very impressed with your detailed and easy explanation.. wish u get reward for this 🙂

    September 30, 2014 at 1:59 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Thank you. I am very impressed with your boxing career.

      May 11, 2016 at 3:27 am
  • Reply kbd

    This information came in handy. thank you so much.

    October 31, 2014 at 8:07 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    well explained

    November 20, 2014 at 4:30 am
  • Reply Ced

    Celsius is not really a good example for a true zero, as people experience 0 degrees Celsius quite often. A better example would be 0 degrees Kelvin. Semantics, I know, but it\’s easier to understand if phrased in K.
    Great explanations otherwise.

    December 2, 2014 at 3:51 pm
  • Reply Bhupal Bista

    Thank you sir. it is very helpful me for broden my knowledge.

    December 2, 2014 at 8:42 pm
  • Reply Abdulmalik

    This explanations kinda help. I wish can get more verbal explanations.

    December 6, 2014 at 3:36 am
  • Reply Dr. Ofole

    Your explanations were very explicit and illustrative. My knowledge has greatly improved on the 4 levels of measurements

    January 6, 2015 at 3:50 pm
  • Reply Mathew J

    I truly enjoyed reading thru this paper. Simple language, simple and to the point explanations. I appreciate you for your effort to share this with persons like me, finding hard to comprehend statistics. Thanks a lot

    January 18, 2015 at 1:45 pm
  • Reply Maqsood

    Thanks … It helped me a lot to understand the measurement scales.

    January 21, 2015 at 12:49 am
  • Reply said Mohamud

    Thanks alot

    February 1, 2015 at 5:48 am
  • Reply Efficiency

    Nice work…helped me in my assingment

    February 4, 2015 at 11:21 am
  • Reply Dennis

    quiz of basic statistics
    are the following nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio data??,Explain your answers
    1)Temperature measuring on a kelvin scale.
    2)military ranks
    3)HIV/AIDS status
    4)Coli form bacteria counts in drinking water supplies

    February 7, 2015 at 4:39 am
  • Reply Tiff

    I am doing a make up research in clinic no show rates. Taking the amount of patients scheduled on a given day, and the amount of patients that actually show. What type is this?

    February 9, 2015 at 10:09 pm
  • Reply Susan

    This article has helped me understand what I am studying, different types of vocational testing. I needed to understand the basic concept. Very helpful. Thank you

    February 10, 2015 at 10:45 pm
  • Reply walter

    great article and very helpfull

    February 13, 2015 at 2:57 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Very precise and clear. Thank you

    February 20, 2015 at 2:31 am
  • Reply don

    your explanations were simple deep,illustrative,awesome thank you keep it up

    March 29, 2015 at 9:48 am
  • Reply sowmiyasakthivel

    it was more informative to me and ur way of examples in each types scale was outstanding and easily to understabke thank you so much……..

    April 10, 2015 at 5:44 am
  • Reply brother bo

    give this man a bells

    April 10, 2015 at 10:46 am
  • Reply ekant puri

    Being a Quality Engineer. Its very important to know all the scales. This article was very informative..

    Thanks

    April 12, 2015 at 7:17 am
  • Reply batool ehsany

    Clear and useful, thanks a lot.

    April 19, 2015 at 1:04 pm
  • Reply Miilnda Peiris

    Thank You. Learnt lot in a flash, summary was brilliant.

    April 23, 2015 at 5:56 am
  • Reply Dr.M.Rizwanulhassan

    Excellent explanation for scales

    April 24, 2015 at 1:13 am
  • Reply hokidi paul

    Thanks alot for the detailed explanation of measurements of scale, keep it up.

    April 25, 2015 at 4:36 am
  • Reply Audrey

    That was soo simple and informative…thumbs up

    May 9, 2015 at 5:10 am
  • Reply Chinyere

    I just recently signed on for a Msc in health education..and statistics is one of the modules…This is helping me a lot. Wouldnt mind more though!

    May 11, 2015 at 4:00 am
  • Reply Emilia Lawson

    Many thanks for the explanation. It helped me solve my assignment in an educational course and has also enlightened me more.

    May 19, 2015 at 1:13 pm
  • Reply Anonymous

    great explanation!! short and sweet, straight to the point. Awesome thanks!!

    May 25, 2015 at 4:34 pm
  • Reply Fred

    Invaluable! I found myself a gold chest. I wish I found this website so much earlier, not the day before the due like this.I will visit the website often in the future!

    June 10, 2015 at 8:16 am
  • Reply AM

    I think 0 is the same as 24 so we can\’t count time as ratio data even on the 24 hour clock unless you remove 24 from the data set and end at 23.

    June 14, 2015 at 2:41 pm
  • Reply CON

    Thank you so much sir and ma\’am, this serves as my nirvana about scale of measurement. 🙂

    July 29, 2015 at 11:13 am
  • Reply Vetbd

    So, Nominal & ordinal are qualitative and interval & ratio are quantitative variable. These are scale of data measurement. But ordinal can be both qualitative and quantitative. Can it?

    July 31, 2015 at 4:24 pm
    • Reply Anonymous

      thanks this is wonderful work.#kevin, but how would you classify the teachers job groups in a staff?

      September 29, 2015 at 12:51 am
  • Reply Esther Mwangi Wangu

    Thank you for the great job. I like the bit on how to remember, nominal is like name, ordinal is like order. That was creative. Keep it up!

    August 3, 2015 at 9:51 am
  • Reply Karthik

    Brilliant article! A very QQ: why do you classify temperature as being interval. I agree there if nothing called \\”no temperature\\” , but isn\\’t 20°c twice as hot as 10°c or am I wrong? Please clarify. Also, another ex of ratio scales would be very very helpful.

    August 8, 2015 at 9:50 am
  • Reply Tomas

    Mucho gracias, yo soy incanatado en meteriale, chao

    August 13, 2015 at 8:38 am
  • Reply Fari

    Thanks for such clear and understandable explanation

    August 23, 2015 at 7:16 am
  • Reply emma

    What of binary scale?

    September 16, 2015 at 11:16 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Wow! Those examples simply nailed the explanations inside my memory. Thanks a lot.

    September 18, 2015 at 12:19 am
  • Reply Kofi Ghana

    To make things clearer, pls don’t confuse ‘true zero’ to mean that zero is a valid number on a scale.for example, the height of an individual being 0cm. ‘true zero’ means there are no negative values for the scale being considered, as in the height of a person being -100cm which is invalid. The Celsius scale is said to have ‘no true value’ because negative values are actually valid for the Celsius temperature scale. For instance , the temperature of ice could be -4 degrees Celsius. So weight and height have a true zero.

    September 19, 2015 at 5:16 pm
    • Reply Kofi Ghana

      The ‘no true value’ should be ‘no true zero’ , sorry

      September 19, 2015 at 5:49 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Good clarification. thanks!

      October 23, 2015 at 9:18 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Thank you so much

    September 26, 2015 at 7:48 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Excellent!!

    September 27, 2015 at 5:49 pm
  • Reply Angela

    The clearest information ever! Thank you so much 🙂

    September 29, 2015 at 10:01 pm
  • Reply fiase Emmanuel

    great job.its amazing.
    simplify and brief

    October 14, 2015 at 5:28 pm
  • Reply Anonymous

    what about these? Is the following nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio scale?
    A score of 90 out of a 100 on a test
    A salary of $32.000

    October 20, 2015 at 4:11 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Ratio

      October 23, 2015 at 9:17 am
      • Reply thanks for such a clear concept

        thanks for such a clear explanation

        November 15, 2015 at 4:06 pm
      • Reply Josh

        You cannot multiply or divide with scores or $ eg $32 x $32, 90% / 70% – no mathematical or statistical meaning on these. Hence the example should be Interval.

        April 18, 2016 at 3:47 am
  • Reply TizTeezy

    Quantity of sand minned daily e.g 1-5, 6-10 trucks per day. What measurement scale is that? How can it be analyzed?

    November 30, 2015 at 3:05 am
  • Reply ismail

    so much lucky explanation, I m 2nd year of university and I have been confused by the lecture .
    but now i have got the point and impressing great thank for your helping well ,encouraging you to keep up this helping.

    November 30, 2015 at 9:48 am
  • Reply FUO

    Brilliant explanation of an otherwise mixed up knowledge of measurement scales in some textbooks. Thanks a Lot.

    December 7, 2015 at 3:22 am
  • Reply saleh magdy

    Thanks very much , it help me very much I appreciate your procedure to displaying the information.

    January 1, 2016 at 1:54 pm
  • Reply Lalitha Meegoda

    Thank you very much. Very helpful to clear my mind on measurement scales.

    January 12, 2016 at 2:27 am
  • Reply Advait

    thanks thanks thanks.
    i would also like to know in situations where interval or ordinal data is taken as nominal data.

    January 25, 2016 at 9:41 am
  • Reply Aneeka

    thanks for providing such a information about better understanding of scales for measurement.
    its really helpful and clear out the confusions between these scales.
    provided examples really appreciable.

    February 2, 2016 at 1:11 am
  • Reply Doris Choo

    Yes I agree this is the best explaination I came across so far. Crystal clear and concise.
    Thanks for sharing your knowledge.
    BC Canada

    February 7, 2016 at 4:50 am
  • Reply Jasmine

    5. Researchers at Princess Margaret Hospital measure patients’ pain using the Pain Survey where 0 = no pain and 10 = excruciating pain. What level of measurement is their survey? What measure of central tendency (mean, median, mode) can they report?

    Can anyone help me with this question here, i\\’m a bit stuck

    February 16, 2016 at 8:23 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Ordinal. The best way to determine central tendency on a set of ordinal data is to use the mode or median; the mean cannot be defined from an ordinal set.

      March 8, 2016 at 4:21 pm
  • Reply Dhaiti

    The best explanation I ever had. You are super! I wish you could be my statistic professor.

    February 28, 2016 at 8:40 pm
  • Reply Mauro

    This was exactly what I needed to read. This was simple and clearly differentiated the terms quite nicely. I’m ready for my text today.

    March 8, 2016 at 9:30 am
  • Reply Said

    Thank you very much, I got more detail about measurment scale . I am preparing Master in Development Studies

    March 13, 2016 at 10:41 pm
  • Reply Kyaw Zin Thant

    For the question, \\\”How many courses have you taken in this year?\\\” is nominal or ratio scale?

    April 2, 2016 at 1:07 am
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Sounds like a ratio scale to me. Absolute zero, known order and values.

      May 11, 2016 at 3:37 am
  • Reply naga

    I am research scholar,i need standred scale for labour welfare measures.

    April 11, 2016 at 2:01 am
  • Reply Zohra Sheikh

    Hi

    I am conducting a study with four variables and in one of them, the scores are as decimals (e.g. 4.3, 5, 3.2…\”) all four variables were measured with Likert scale questionnaires, would the data still be ordinal?

    April 16, 2016 at 10:05 am
  • Reply Josh

    Good article. On nominal/categorical data, I think you can calculate/determine the mode. Mode is the most common value in a dataset e.g. In an experiment, note what colour of shoes each participant is wearing on a particular day. Results Yellow = 5, Blue = 13 Read = 7, black = 27. Hence the mode is black since its the most occurring colour of shoes. Therefore amend the table such that you have a row for Mode, and another one for Median. Then have a tick under Ordinal, see below:

    Provide Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio
    Mode Yes Yes Yes Yes
    Median Yes Yes Yes

    April 18, 2016 at 3:40 am
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Good comment and point. I agree and will update the table. Thanks!

      May 11, 2016 at 3:32 am
  • Reply Moses

    Great explanation

    April 21, 2016 at 6:26 am
  • Reply Rodolfo Montoya

    Thank you, well explained

    April 23, 2016 at 11:08 pm
  • Reply jakob

    Thank you so much!

    May 13, 2016 at 10:21 am
  • Reply Rami

    Thanks Market Reaserch Guy

    May 15, 2016 at 8:30 pm
  • Reply Mayor olapeju

    This is a very helpful article.God bless the author

    May 23, 2016 at 12:49 pm
  • Reply abigail

    thank you for the better understanding

    June 8, 2016 at 9:13 pm
  • Reply Abhishek

    Very well written article – concepts articulated in a simple manner. Thank You.

    June 16, 2016 at 9:23 am
  • Reply Kolade

    Thanks for this lovely article on measurement.

    July 7, 2016 at 12:08 am
  • Reply Daniel Trujillo

    Great presentation and definitions. Thank you

    July 10, 2016 at 9:02 pm
  • Reply AVIK BAL

    Too good an explanation. This is by far the best article i read on scales. Crisp, candid, clear and concise. Thanks a lot.

    July 12, 2016 at 2:12 pm
  • Reply Kodunmi tayo

    Wow this is really good now I understand

    July 14, 2016 at 12:03 am
  • Reply Will

    As a physicist being forced to do pedagogical research I both appreciate this article and the image at the top. Cheers!

    July 29, 2016 at 10:45 am
  • Reply Eugene

    This is a wonderful and simple explanation – I wonder if you have considered making a video presentation and linking it to TeacherTube, Youtube, Vimeo, or some similar format? As many have already expressed, yours is perhaps one of the simplest and straightforward explanations for an otherwise complex topic.
    – Just a thought

    Thank you very much!

    August 12, 2016 at 12:27 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Thanks. Yes, I intend to add a video and update this post a bit once I have some time.

      October 6, 2016 at 11:19 pm
  • Reply Rohit Kaler

    what is the level of measurement for bank account balance and why?

    August 12, 2016 at 11:50 pm
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Ratio. One can have $0 balance.

      October 6, 2016 at 11:18 pm
  • Reply Shaila Mae Procullos Tura

    Thanks for this article 🙂 u help me a lot :*

    August 17, 2016 at 3:52 am
  • Reply Mohammed

    thank you so much for your help

    August 19, 2016 at 9:53 am
  • Reply Emily

    The score of 57.11 out of 70?

    August 27, 2016 at 8:56 pm
  • Reply Anila

    What scale of measurement is used for the number of pizzas consumed during the second week/ and the number of days people got sick

    September 18, 2016 at 12:28 am
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Sounds like a ratio scale to me.

      October 6, 2016 at 11:12 pm
  • Reply Anonymous

    In which scale does nationality falls?

    September 27, 2016 at 4:10 am
    • Reply Market Research Guy

      Nominal

      October 6, 2016 at 11:08 pm
  • Reply Keziah

    Thank you.
    The response has been quite helpful

    September 28, 2016 at 1:32 am
  • Reply Seni

    Thanks is so explanatory,even with the examples.

    October 4, 2016 at 6:53 pm
  • Reply EK

    This is really helpful and clear!, Thanks so much!

    October 8, 2016 at 12:40 pm
  • Reply Anonymous

    thanks, for great article.
    what about Zip Code and salary

    October 9, 2016 at 5:57 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Temperature is *ratio* when we use the unit Kelvin.

    October 19, 2016 at 3:42 pm
  • Reply SUNIL KUMAR MISHRA

    also want to know about difference value and absolute value. thanks

    October 28, 2016 at 10:38 am
  • Reply Danny Timms

    There is such a thing as no temperature. It is called absolute zero. It is represented on the Kelvin and Rankine scales, both of which have zero at absolute and are ratio data scales. The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales have zero placed arbitrarily (absolute zero exists on those scales, but is not nominally zero in either of them), and so those scales are interval but not ratio.

    November 21, 2016 at 12:08 pm
  • Reply Mufutau Ayinla Abdul-Yakeen

    You have done a very good job. Please keep it up.

    November 22, 2016 at 9:17 pm
  • Reply StressedStudent

    I am currently doing my BA in hospitality management. My research is on peoples perceptions of Self-service technology in the industry and if it is taking the hospitality element away from the experience. I am trying to work out which measurement of scale would be best used. I am using interviews to gather data.

    Any help would be appreciated 🙂

    November 25, 2016 at 11:00 am
  • Reply Anon

    Wow, what a great article. I have learnt in a few minutes what has been taught to me over the last few months (not so clearly). Really easy to read and has helped a lot. Much appreciated.

    November 28, 2016 at 4:18 pm
  • Reply Stephie Ojiambo

    Thank you so much.

    December 8, 2016 at 3:31 am
  • Reply Sumit bhatnagar

    Excellent explanations with examples. Thank you so much.

    December 16, 2016 at 8:48 am
  • Reply Mai DiMatteo

    I understand the definition of Interval but am having trouble applying it. Your explanation has helped some but I am still trying to wrap my brain around whether something has an absolute zero or not. What would you say the following are classified as?
    Per capita income
    The trade balance in dollars
    Profit/loss in dollars

    January 25, 2017 at 10:30 pm
  • Reply TNM

    I have a better understanding on the four levels of measurement. You explain the meanings better than my textbook .

    January 28, 2017 at 2:05 pm
  • Reply Deon

    If the interval measure cannot be divided, then why in the chart does it say that a “mean” can be produced from it?

    February 10, 2017 at 4:21 pm
  • Reply Nauman Ahmed

    Very good and simple explanation

    March 7, 2017 at 8:32 am
  • Reply manju sharma

    thank you !!!!!!!!!!!

    March 23, 2017 at 1:28 am
  • Reply manju sharma

    thank you !

    March 23, 2017 at 4:55 am
  • Reply Elise

    Very useful – well explained.
    Thank you 🙂

    March 30, 2017 at 5:20 am
  • Reply Dr. Ramnath Takiar

    Very well writeen. However, I have seek the following clarification from you.
    What is your favourite sports? Answer to this will form a nominal data or ordinal data?
    What kind of music do you like? It is an open ended question. Answer to this may result in more than one category like Western music, Indian music, folk music etc. How do you categorise this data? Nominal or Ordinal?

    April 2, 2017 at 11:02 pm
  • Reply khattak

    well explained… and easy to understand..

    April 12, 2017 at 8:02 am
  • Reply nirmal mohakud

    great learning for me.
    nice piece of knowledge.

    April 19, 2017 at 10:11 pm
  • Reply Anonymous

    Simple explaination

    April 23, 2017 at 6:18 am
  • Reply koo

    Very useful explanation thanks a lot

    April 25, 2017 at 8:34 am
  • Reply Nam Nguyen

    Qty of mined sand daily would be ratio. 1st, there\’s a true and meaningful zero, ie, it\’s conceivable that there is a day when you get absolutely NO sand. 2nd, you can divide or multiply to get ratio of sands mined on different days, ie, 10 trucks on Monday is 2x the 5 trucks on Wed.

    April 26, 2017 at 5:57 pm
  • Reply Ibukun Adeagbo

    This is a great work ! Thanks Sir

    April 28, 2017 at 4:16 am
  • Reply Henna

    Very very helpful article
    Thank U the writer….

    May 1, 2017 at 12:39 pm
  • Reply CR KIKAWA

    Excellent discussion. Very informative indeed!

    May 2, 2017 at 2:51 am
  • Reply WD

    Thank you, helped me with my UX studies! Greetings from Cape Town, South Africa.

    May 20, 2017 at 10:42 am
  • Reply Anonymous

    Thanks for elaboration.

    May 30, 2017 at 11:30 pm
  • Reply sulav shrestha

    thank you,it helped me a lot to understand

    June 13, 2017 at 4:44 am
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